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People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
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History of Algeria


Middle Paleolithic:
Aterian Civilization (sites of Bir el Ater, south of Annaba, and in the Nementcha at 70 km south of Tebessa, to the extremity of djebel Onk).

Ancient Neolithic:
Sites of snail shell mounds near Constantine and in the Sahara: Capsians were escargot eaters.

Recent Neolithic in Sahara (humid):
Brilliant Civilization (engravings and cave paintings of the Tassili n’Adjjer).

16th Century to 9th Century BC:
Probable descendants of the Capsians came into contact with " people of the Sea " and learned Aegean and Anatolian techniques: the Sahara became barren and empty.



Carthaginian Period, Kingdom of Numidia and Roman Period:


  • About 1250 BC :Arrival of the Phoenician and foundation of the merchant colonies of Hippo-regius and Utica.
  • About-510 BC :Treaty between Rome and Carthage, Rome recognized the commercial monopoly of Carthage in the western Mediterranean.
  • From 348 BC to 306 BC :Commercial Treaties between the Punics and Romans.
  • From 264 BC to 146 BC :Punic wars (264 BC to 241 BC/ 218BC to 201 BC/ 149 BC to 146 BC).
  • 3rd and 2nd century BC :Kingdoms of Numidia : Syphax, Massinissa and Jugurtha
  • From 111 BC to 105 BC :Jugurthine Wars between Jugurtha, king of the Numidians, and the Romans
  • 46 BC :Numidia became a Roman province
  • From 1 AD to 429 AD :Romanization of North Africa
  • From 429 AD to 430 AD :Invasion of the Vandals
  • From 533 AD to 646 AD :Byzantine Conquests of North Africa



The advent of Islam:

  • 647 AD : Arrival of the Arabs: Led by Oqba Ibn-Nafaa;
  • From 776 to 909 :Rostomid dynasty
  • From 908 to 972 :Fatimid Dynasty
  • From 972 to 1148 :Zirid dynasty
  • From 1007 to 1152 :Hammadit dynasty
  • From 1052 to 1147 :Almoravid Dynasty
  • From 1121 to 1235 :Almohad dynasty
  • From 1235 to 1556 :Zianid dynasty



Ottoman Period:

  • 1518 :fight against the threat of Spanish occupation, Kheireddine Barberousse placed Algiers under protection of the ottoman Sultan of Istanbul.
  • 1534-1587 :Reign of the "Beylerbeys" (23 Beylerbeys took power).
  • 1587-1659 :Reign of the Pachas (about 40 pachas took power).


  • 1659-1671 :Reign of the "Aghas"(about 4 aghas took power).
  • 1671-1710 : Authority of the deys-pachas (11 deys took power) Algiers withstood English and French aggressions (1678,1680,1682,1688).
  • 1710-1830 :Authority of the Dey (18 deys took power, the latest was Dey Hocine).



French colonization:

  • June 14, 1830 :Disembarkation of French forces on the coast of Sidi Fredj.
  • July 5, 1830 :Signature of the agreement of submission by the Dey of Algiers.
  • 1832-1847 :Resistance of Emir Abd el-Kader who made his authority recognized on the center and the west of Algeria as the Algerian State.
  • 1830-1848 :Resistance of Ahmed Bey in the East of Algeria.
  • February 26, 1834 :Desmichels Treaty concluded between France and Emir Abd El Kader.
  • May 3, 1837 :Treaty of Tafna concluded between General Bugeaud and Emir Abd El Kader.
  • 1846 :Revolt of Benacer Ben Chohra in the Center and the Southeast of Algeria.
  • 1845-1850 : Revolt of the oasis of Zaatcha and Zibane conducted by Sheik Bouziane.
  • 1851-1860 :Revolt of Cherif Boubeghla and Fatma N'soumer in Djurdjura and in Kabylia​
  • 1864-1884 :Revolt of Ouled Sidi-Cheikh
  • 1871-1872 :Revolt of Hadj Mohamed El Mokrani Boumezrag and Cheikh El Haddad
  • 1877-1912 :Revolt of the Touareg in the Hoggar under the lead of Sheik Amoud Ben Mokhtar
  •  1912 :Creation of the “Movement of the Algerian youth”,(in French :“Mouvement de la Jeunesse Algerienne) directed by the émir Khaled.
    Creation in Algiers of “The association of the Muslim Students of North Africa”( in French: “L’Association des Etudiants Musulmans de l’Afrique du Nord”(A.E.M.A.N.)
  • March 1926 :Creation in Paris of “ The North African star”,( in French: “l'Étoile Nord Africaine”) by El-hadj Ahmed Messali
  • 1927 :Creation in Paris of “The association of the North African Muslim Students”,( in French “L’Association des Etudiants Musulmans Nord Africains -A.E.M.A.N.F)
  • May 5, 1931 :Creation of “L’Association des Oulamas Musulmans” by Sheik Abdelhamid Ben Badis.
  • March 1937 :Creation in Algiers of “the Party of the People of Algeria”,( in French: “ Le Parti du Peuple Algerian P.P.A) by El-hadj Ahmed Messali.
  • 1943 :Ferhat Abbas presented to the allies in WW2 the “Manifesto of the Algerian people” requesting the equality between the Muslim and European communities.
  • May 8, 1945 : Massacres of Sétif, Guelma and Kherrata, about 45,000 people killed.
  • 1946 : Ferhat Abbas created “The Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto’) In French. “l’Union Democratique du Manifeste Algerien (U.D.M.A)
    El-hadj Ahmed Messali created “the Movement for the Triumph of The Democratic Liberties”(in French: “ Le Mouvement pour le Triomphe des Libertés Démocratiques (M.T.L.D)
  • 1947 :Creation of “the Special Organization”. (in French : “l’Organisation Spéciale)
  • November 1, 1954 :Starting of the Algerian revolution.
  • September 1955 :The Algerian issue placed on the agenda of the U.N.
  • August 20, 1956 :Congress of the Soummam and Creation of the “National Council of the Algerian Revolution “ ( In French : le Conseil national de la Révolution algérienne C.N.R.A.) and “the committee of coordination and application ” (In French: le Comité de coordination et d'exécution C. C. E)
  • September 19, 1958 :Creation of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic. “ in French: Le Gouvernement Provisoire de la Republique Algerienne (G.P.R.A.)” presided by Ferhat Abbas.
  • August 09, 1961  :Benyoucef Ben Khedda became the 3rd President of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic.
  • March 18, 1962 :Signature of the Evian agreements between the F.L.N. and the French Government.
  • March 19, 1962 : Proclamation of the cease-fire.
  • April 1962 :Installation of the Provisional Executive in “Rocher Noir” (Boumèrdes)
  • July 01, 1962 :Referendum on self-determination, (99.7% in favour of independence).
  • July 05, 1962 :Proclamation of the independence of Algeria.



Independent Algeria:

  • September 20, 1962 :Election of the first constituent assembly.
  • September 25, 1962 :Proclamation of the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria.
  • September 29, 1962 :Constitution of the first government of Algeria.
  • October 08, 1962 :Admission of Algeria to the U.N.
  • May 08, 1963 :Adoption by referendum of the first constitution of Algeria
  • September 15, 1963  :Election of Mr. Ahmed Ben Bella to the Presidency of the Republic.
  • April 1964 :Adoption of the Charter of Algiers by the 3rd congress of the F. L. N. (National Liberation Front)
  • June 19, 1965 :Creation of the Council of the Revolution presided by Mr. Houari Boumediene.
  • May 07, 1966 :Nationalization of mines.
  • February 05, 1967 :First local election (A.P.C (Municipalities) and A.P.W. (Provinces/Regions)
  • May 1967 :French army left the bases of Reggane and Bechar.
  • February 1st, 1968 :Withdrawal of the French army from the naval base of Mers El-Kebir.
  • February 24, 1971:Nationalization of hydrocarbons.
  • June 27, 1976 :Adoption by referendum of the National Charter.
  • November 19, 1976 :Adoption by referendum of the second constitution of Algeria.
  • December 10, 1976 :Election of Mr. Houari Boumediene as President of the Republic.
  • December 27, 1978 :Death of President Houari Boumediene.
  • February 07, 1979 :Election of Mr. Chadli Bendjedid as President of the Republic.
  • January 13, 1983 :Reelection of Mr. Chadli Bendjedid as President of the Republic (2nd term).
  • October 05, 1988 :Protests in several cities of Algeria.
  • November 03, 1988 :Adoption by referendum of the revision of the Constitution
  • December 22, 1988 :Reelection of Mr. Chadli Bendjedid as President of the Republic (3rd term).
  • February 23, 1989  :Adoption by referendum of the fourth constitution of Algeria
  • June 05, 1991 :Proclamation of the state of siege.
  • January 04, 1992 :Dissolution of the People’s National Assembly (Parliament).
  • January 12, 1992 :Resignation of President Chadli Bendjedid.
  • January 14, 1992 :Creation of the Higher State Council (in French :Haut Conseil de l’Etat -H.C.E.) under the presidency of Mr. Mohamed Boudiaf.
  • February 02, 1992 :Declaration of the state of emergency.
  • February 04, 1992 :Creation of a National Consultative Council.
  • June 29, 1992 :Assassination of the President of the Higher State Council, Mr. Mohamed Boudiaf.
  • July 02, 1992 :Mr. Ali Kafi became President of the Higher State Council.
  • January 30, 1994 :End of the Higher State Council, Mr. Liamine Zeroual is designated as Head of State.
  • May 18, 1994 :Creation of the National Council of Transition (in French: Conseil National de Transition).
  • November 16, 1995 :Mr. Liamine Zeroual elected President of the Republic.
  • November 28, 1996 :Referendum on the fifth Constitution of Algeria.
  • June 05, 1997 :Pluralist legislative election.
  • October 23, 1997 :Pluralist local Election.
  • September 11, 1998 :Mr. Liamine Zeroual announced early presidential election.
  • April 15, 1999 :Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika elected President of the Republic.
  • September 16, 1999 :Adoption by referendum of the Law on the civil concord.
  • April 10, 2002 :Constitutionalisation of Tamazight (Berber Language) as national language.
  • May 30, 2002 :Second pluralist legislative election.
  • April 08, 2004 :Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika re-elected President of the Republic.
  • September 23, 2005 :Adoption, by referendum, of the National Charter for Peace and Reconciliation.
  • November 12, 2008 :Revision of the Constitution of Algeria.
  • April 09, 2009 :Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika re-elected President of the Republic.
  • April 17, 2014 :Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika re-elected President of the Republic.
  • March 2016 :Revision of the constitution.
  • 22 February 2019 :Start of the peaceful popular movement (Hirak).
  • 2 April 2019 :Resignation of President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA.
  • 12 December 2019 :Election of Mr. Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE as President of the Republic.
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